What Goes Into a Properly Prepared Expert Report?
Generally, Style and Format Requirements Within An Expert Report Can Be Provided By a Legal Representative. The Legal Representative May Also Assist the Expert In Understanding the Issues Requiring An Opinion; However, the Expressed Views Within An Report Must Be Pure Opining of the Expert.
Understanding the Requirements When Preparing An Expert Witness Report Document For Court Litigation Purposes
A proper, well crafted, expert witness report can make the difference between success or failure within a lawsuit; and accordingly, avoiding mistakes within an expert report is of utmost importance so to ensure that the expert report is admissible, and may be relied upon, within the court proceeding. If an expert report is deemed inadmissible, such may jeopardize the legal case.
Quality Expert Reports
Communicate Clearly and Effectively
Before starting to craft an expert report, the expert is wise to carefully review the purpose and needs which the report is to serve by discussing such with the lawyer or paralegal who are seeking the report. Depending on the nature of the court case, the report may require broad details or may require a narrow focus. In some circumstances, a brief report is adequate; and in other circumstances a more lengthy report is necessary. Failing to conduct this review may result in the expert wasting the effort of preparing an excessively detailed report or useless preparing an insufficient report; and whereas both possibilities may result in a waste of time, such is also a waste of money.
It is also necessary that the supporting evidence documents reviewed by the expert are adequately included and properly referenced. The expert opinion contained within a report should, and perhaps must, refer to supporting evidence documents such as pictures or testing results, among other things, attached as appendices or schedules. Additionally, a bibliography to summarize any authoritative documents used for research should be included.
An expert report should express opinions clearly and concisely while being easy to read in an organized and professional layout with spelling, grammar, and punctuation, carefully reviewed for correctness. The expert report should be written with a vernacular and tone that is consistent with the language of the intended audience whereas, for example, differences may be required for legal cases heard by a judge versus legal cases heard by a jury; and accordingly, language should remain within the understanding of the average layperson while avoiding belittlement of judges, lawyers, and other experts. Reports should be careful to limit the use of industry specific jargon or abbreviations known only to those with expertise within the relevant field; and, where industry jargon or abbreviations are necessary, a reference table or key to provide definitions should be provided within the report.
- Use professional letterhead;
- Use a cover page as well as an index or table of contents;
- Use a curriculum vitae or resume to summarize the qualifications and credentials that confirm that the expert is genuinely an expert;
- Use an introduction page to outline when, and from whom, the report was requested;
- Use 12-point font and double spacing;
- Use headings;
- Use short, concise paragraphs;
- Use a unique reference number for each page, table, chart, and appendix;
- Use a definitions page or section to define technical language and industry specific jargon or abbreviations; and
- Use an upfront summary page to outline final conclusions or opinions.
Things to Avoid
A biased or slanted expert report can be disastrous – and should be! The expert is expected to provide opinion as a friend of the court for the primary purpose of assisting the court in the truth finding effort. The expert, while having an opinion that may favour one litigant over another, must base the opinion on authentic reasons rather than as friend of a litigant.
- Avoid absolute wording and phrasing;
- Avoid words that appear as hedging or guessing;
- Avoid critical commentary regarding credibility of other experts;
- Avoid a scientific and clinical tone by keeping the tone friendly and personable;
- Avoid going into details beyond the purpose of the report;
- Avoid unnecessary adjectives or superlatives.
The expert preparing an opinion report must remain attentive to the balance required when obtaining input from a legal representative whereas the lawyer or paralegal seeking the report will best understand the factual concerns and legal issues that relate to why the report is needed and can explain the desired scope; however, the findings and opinions as stated within the report must always remain the genuine unslanted view of the expert as author of the report.